Kristian Florensio Wijaya


To enable all EFL learners to engage in teacher-course experiences to be high-quality educators in the future, outcome-based education needs to be implemented by all lecturers in charge of improving the future national educational systems through hands-on, enjoyable, and cooperative learning experiences. Therefore, outcome-based education had been assumed as one of the best answers to rejuvenate the whole educational policies nowadays since the learners will be able to engage more proactively in portraying their status as future educators through mutual cognitive and affective engagement. This study employed a qualitative method to investigate whether outcome-based education had successfully promoted learning autonomy for EFL learners engaging in the introduction to education class. Furthermore, two researcher instruments were also utilized to obtain a higher degree of trustworthiness in this study namely classroom observation and classroom survey. In accord with the gathered data, the findings suggest all EFL lecturers teaching in teacher-course experiences to apply outcome-based education fully to promote a higher degree of enjoyment in learning, engage all learners to be more highly participative in disseminating a wide array of knowledge, and raise more intriguing awareness for the lecturers to be more self-evaluative on their applied teaching-learning practices.


Keywords: outcome-based education, EFL learners’ learning autonomy, introduction to education class 


English Language Teaching

Full Text:



Bada, S. O., & Olusegun, S. (2015). Constructivism learning theory: A paradigm for teaching and learning. Journal of Research & Method in Education, 5(6), 66-70.

Balçıkanlı, C. (2010). Learner autonomy in language learning: Student teachers’ beliefs. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(1), 8.

Barfield, C. E. (2001). Free Trade, Sovereignty, Democracy: Future of the World Trade Organization. Chi. J. Int'l L., 2, 403.

Borg, S., & Al-Busaidi, S. (2012). Learner autonomy: English language teachers’ beliefs and practices. ELT journal, 12(7), 1-45.

Boyle, M. A., & Crosby, R. (1997). At Issue-Academic Program Evaluation: Lessons from Business and Industry.

Caine, G., & Caine, R. N. (2006). Meaningful learning and the executive functions of the brain. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 110, 53-61.

Caine, G., & Caine, R. N. (2006). Meaningful learning and the executive functions of the brain. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 110, 53-61.

Camilleri, G. (1999). Introducing learner autonomy in teacher education. Council of Europe.

Churcher, K. (2014). " Friending" Vygotsky: A Social Constructivist Pedagogy of Knowledge Building through Classroom Social Media Use. Journal of Effective Teaching, 14(1), 33-50.

Connelly, F. M., & Clandinin, D. J. (2006). Narrative inquiry. Handbook of complementary methods in education research, 3, 477-487.

Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective. Educational psychologist, 26(3-4), 325-346.

Dinglasan, B. L., & Patena, A. (2013). Students Performance on Departmental Examination: Basis for Math Intervention Program. University of Alberta School of Business Research Paper, (2013-1308).

Dirkx, J. M., Mezirow, J., & Cranton, P. (2006). Musings and reflections on the meaning, context, and process of transformative learning: A dialogue between John M. Dirkx and Jack Mezirow. Journal of transformative education, 4(2), 123-139.

Egel, I. P. (2009). Learner autonomy in the language classroom: From teacher dependency to learner independency. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 2023-2026.

Fiani, A. (2012). The Effectiveness of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (Circ) For Teaching Writing Viewed From Students’ Creativity (The Experimental Study at the Fourth Semester of STAIN Bengkulu in the Academic Year of 2010/2011).

Harasim, L., & Harasim, L. (2018). Constructivist Learning Theory. Learning Theory and Online Technologies. https://doi. org/10.4324/9781315716831-5.

Harden, JR Crosby, MH Davis, M. Friedman, R. M. (1999). AMEE Guide No. 14: Outcome-based education: Part 5-From competency to meta-competency: a model for the specification of learning outcomes. Medical teacher, 21(6), 546-552.

Harden, R. M. (1986). Ten questions to ask when planning a course or curriculum. Medical education, 20(4), 356-365.

Harden, R. M. (2007). Outcome-based education: the future is today. Medical teacher, 29(7), 625-629.

Hein, G. (1991). Constructivist learning theory. Institute for Inquiry. Available at:/http://www. exploratorium. edu/ifi/resources/constructivistlearning. htmlS.

Hidayati, L. A., Kharisma, I., & Satriani, I. (2018). Students’ Perception in Applying Cooperative Learning in EFL Classroom. ETERNAL (English, Teaching, Learning, and Research Journal), 4(1), 16-30.

Honebein, P. C. (1996). Seven goals for the design of constructivist learning environments. Constructivist learning environments: Case studies in instructional design, 11-24.

Kabilan, M. K. (2000). Creative and critical thinking in language classrooms. The Internet TESL Journal, 6(6), 1-3.

Kelling, S. T., Beloin, R. M., Fitzpatrick, J. W., Gill, F. B.,

Slothower, R. L., & Fredericks, T. A. (2004). U.S. Patent No. 6,772,142. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Kosnik, C., & Beck, C. (2009). Priorities in teacher education: The 7 key elements of pre-service preparation. Routledge.

Lucardie, D. (2014). The impact of fun and enjoyment on adult's learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 142, 439-446.

Malcolm, C. (1999). Outcomes-based education has different forms. Changing Curriculum: Studies on Outcome-Based Education in South Africa, 77-113.

Maxwell, J. A. (2008). Designing a qualitative study. The SAGE handbook of applied social research methods, 2, 214-253.

Poetra, E. P., Gustiana, D. S., & Santoso, I. (2019). Improving The Students’ Writing Narrative Text by Applying Cooperative Learning Type Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD). PROJECT (Professional Journal of English Education), 2(4), 588-593.

Preston, J., & Hammond, C. (2003). Practitioner views on the wider benefits of further education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 27(2), 211-222.

Rao, Z. (2006). Helping Chinese EFL students develop learner autonomy through portfolios. Reflections on English Language Teaching, 5(2), 113-122.

Riasati, M. J., Allahyar, N., & Tan, K. E. (2012). Technology in language education: Benefits and barriers. Journal of education and practice, 3(5), 25-30.

Sarsani, M. R. (2006). Quality improvement in teacher education. Sarup & Sons.

Satriani, I. (2019). Storytelling in Teaching Literacy: Benefits

and Challenges. English Review: Journal of English Education, 8(1), 113-120.

Schalock, R. L. (2001). Outcome-based evaluation. Springer Science & Business Media.

Schreiber, L. M., & Valle, B. E. (2013). Social constructivist teaching strategies in the small group classroom. Small Group Research, 44(4), 395-411.

Simbolon, D. R. S., Haryudin, A., & Efransyah, E. (2019). Improving Students’ Speaking Skill Through Project Based Learning. PROJECT (Professional Journal of English Education), 2(2), 241-246.

Smith, R., & Erdogan, S. (2008). Teacher-learner autonomy: Programme goals and student-teacher constructs. Learner and teacher autonomy: concepts, realities, and responses, 83-102.

Spady, W. (1993). Outcome-based education. Australian Curriculum Studies Association.

Spady, W. G. (1994). Outcome-Based Education: Critical Issues and Answers. American Association of School Administrators, 1801 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209 (Stock No. 21-00488; $18.95 plus postage).

Stufflebeam, D. L. (2003). The CIPP model for evaluation. In International handbook of educational evaluation (pp. 31-62). Springer, Dordrecht.

Syatroh, I. L., & Husnussalam, H. (2017). Promoting Learning Autonomy Through Self-Access Center Activities. Jurnal Ilmiah P2M STKIP Siliwangi, 4(1), 8-15.

Tam, M. (2000). Constructivism, instructional design, and technology: Implications for transforming distance learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 3(2), 50-60.

Vera, B., & Satriani, I. (2019). The Use of Cooperative Learning and Discovery Learning in Teaching Writing Descriptive Text. Journal of English Language Learning, 3(2).

Wang, L. (2011). Adaptation of outcome-based learning in an undergraduate English education programme.

Willingham, D. T. (2008). Critical thinking: Why is it so hard to teach? Arts Education Policy Review, 109(4), 21-32.

Yang, L., & Wilson, K. (2006). Second language classroom reading: A social constructivist approach. The reading matrix, 6(3).


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 237 times
PDF - 104 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.