• Pande Putu Justiana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, Indonesia
  • Made Hery Santosa Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, Indonesia
  • Gede Mahendrayana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, Indonesia




MALL, Mobile Assisted Language Learning, Readiness, Distance Learning


This current study aims to identify teachers’ and students’ readiness in utilizing MALL during distance teaching and to investigate factors affect the readiness in using MALL in the context of online teaching.  In conducting the study, a mix method with a survey was conducted. The data were collected through questionnaire and interview. This study involved the English teachers and students in SMA Negeri 1 Mengwi. The result of data analysis found that teachers are ready but requires some improvement to use MALL in the context of online teaching. It can be seen from the overall mean score of teachers’ readiness (3.91) (Technology=4.50, Ability to Adapt=4.06 Openness=4.06, People=3.81, Budget=3.50, and Believe=3.25). Meanwhile, the students were categorized as not ready with 3.25 mean score. Mean score from all indicators are also lower than teacher (Technology=3.57, Ability to Adapt=3.45 Openness=3.45, People=3.16, Budget=2.87, and Believe=3.03). There are several factors that support the readiness of teachers and students in implementing MALL. Mainly in terms of technology and budget readiness.


Agormedah, E. K., Henaku, E., AYyite, D. M. K., & Ansah, E. (2020). Online Learning in Higher Education during COVID-19 Pandemic: A case of Ghana. Journal of Educational Technology and Online Learning, 3(3), 183–210. https://doi.org/10.31681/jetol.726441

Agung, A. S. N., Surtikanti, M. W., & Quinones, C. A. (2020). Students’ Perception of Online Learning during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study on the English Students of STKIP Pamane Talino. SOSHUM : Jurnal Sosial Dan Humaniora, 10(2), 225–235. https://doi.org/10.31940/soshum.v10i2.1316

Aydin, C. H., & Tasci, D. (2005). Measuring Readiness for e-Learning: Reflections from an Emerging Country. Educational Technology and Society, 8(4), 244–257.

Benson, A., L., J., Norfles, N., & Starkey, C. (2012). Distance Learning and the Low-Income Student. In International Perspectives of Distance Learning in Higher Education (Issue May 2014). https://doi.org/10.5772/38910

Buselic, M. (2012). Distance Learning – concepts and contributions. Oeconomica Jadertina, 1, 23–34.

Casement, W. (2013). Will online learning lower the price of college? Journal of College Admission, 220, 14–18. http://ezproxy.bethel.edu/login?url=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=higher+education,+productivity,+costs&pr=on&ff1=dtySince_2013&ff2=subCosts&id=EJ1011796

Dwiharyadi, A., Afni, Z., & Aulia, R. (2020). Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh: Bagaimana Model Pembelajaran yang Efektif. In Proseding Seminar Nasional Akuntasi (Vol 2, No. 1), 318–330.

Dwiyanti, K. E., Pratama, I. P. Y., & Manik, N. P.I.M. C. (2020). Online Learning Readiness of Junior High School Students in Denpasar. Indonesian Journal of English Education, 7(2), 172–188. https://doi.org/10.15408/ijee.v7i2.17773

Eze, S. C., Chinedu-Eze, V. C., & Bello, A. O. (2018). The utilisation of e-learning facilities in the educational delivery system of Nigeria: a study of M-University. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-018-0116-z

Harper, K. C., Chen, K., & Yen, D. C. (2004). Distance learning, virtual classrooms, and teaching pedagogy in the Internet environment. Technology in Society, 26(4), 585–598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2004.08.002

Hashim, H., Md. Yunus, M., Amin Embi, M., & Mohamed Ozir, N. A. (2017). Mobile-assisted Language Learning (MALL) for ESL Learners: A Review of Affordances and Constraints. Sains Humanika, 9(1–5). https://doi.org/10.11113/sh.v9n1-5.1175

Hsu, L. (2016). Examining EFL teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and the adoption of mobile-assisted language learning: a partial least square approach. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(8), 1287–1297. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2016.1278024

Kiryakova, G. (2009). Review of Distance Education. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 7(3), 29–34.

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., Akcaoglu, M., & Rosenberg, J. M. (2013). The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework for Teachers and Teacher Educators. October 2014.

Kuama, S., & Intharaksa, U. (2016). Is online learning suitable for all English language students? PASAA: Journal of Language Teaching and Learning in Thailand, 52(December), 53–82. http://libproxy.usc.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1895977430?accountid=14749

Lin, Y. P. (2018). Are Students Ready for Online Learning? International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics, 7(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.4018/ijabe.2018010101

Lister, M. (2014). Trends in the Design of E-Learning and Online Learning. Journal of Online Learning & Teaching, 10(4), 671–680. http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=100728968&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Lizamuddin, A., Asib, A., & Ngadiso, N. (2019). Indonesian English Learners’ Perception of The Implementation of Mobile Assisted Language Learning in English Class. Metathesis: Journal of English Language, Literature, and Teaching, 3(1), 70. https://doi.org/10.31002/metathesis.v3i1.1252

Meladina, & Zaswita, H. (2020). Shedding Light on EFL Students’ Readiness an d Problems to Face Online Learning in the Pandemic Era. Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra Dan Budaya, 19(1), 1–8.

Metruk, R. (2020). Confronting the Challenges of MALL : Distraction , Cheating , and Teacher Readiness. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 15(2), 4–14. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i02.11325

Miangah, T. M., & Nezarat, A. (2012). Mobile-Assisted Language Learning. International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems, 3(1), 309–319. https://doi.org/10.5121/ijdps.2012.3126

Miles, B., Huberman, M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook. SAGE Pub.

Mobinizad, M. M. (2018). The Use of Mobile Apps in Learning English Language. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 8(11), 1456–1468. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0811.10

Onyema, E. M. (2020). Impact of Coronavirus Pandemic on Education. Journal of Education and Practice, May. https://doi.org/10.7176/jep/11-13-12

Ozturk, D. S., Ozturk, F., & Ozen, R. (2018). The relationship between prospective teachers’ readiness and satisfactions about web-based distance education. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 19(1), 147–162. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.382791

Palalas, A. (2011). Mobile-assisted language learning: designing for your students. In S. Thouësny & L. Bradley (Eds.), Second Language Teaching and Learning with Technology: Views of Emergent Researchers (pp. 71–94). Research-publishing.net. https://doi.org/10.14705/rpnet.2011.000007

Rahiem, M. D. H. (2020). The emergency remote learning experience of university students in Indonesia amidst the COVID-19 crisis. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(6), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.6.1

Saidouni, K., & Bahloul, A. (2016). Teachers and Students’ Attitudes towards Using Mobile-Assisted Language Learning in Higher Education Teachers and Students’ Attitudes towards Using Mobile-Assisted SAIDOUNI & BAHLOUL. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL, 3, 123–140. www.awej.org

Sajida, & Ranjani. (2020). Examining the Internet Quota Subsidy Policy in Indonesia. Iapa Proceedings Conference, 298–319. https://doi.org/doi:10.30589/proceedings.2020.411

Saykılı, A. (2018). Distance education: Definitions, generations, key concepts and future directions. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 5(1), 2–17.

Scherer, R., Howard, S. K., Tondeur, J., & Siddiq, F. (2021). Profiling teachers’ readiness for online teaching and learning in higher education: Who’s ready? Computers in Human Behavior, 118(October 2020), 106675. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106675

Sharples, M., Roock, R. de, Ferguson, R., Gaved, M., Herodotou, C., Koh, E., Kukulska-Hulme, A., Looi, C.-K., McAndrew, P., Rienties, B., Weller, M., Wong, L. H., & Open. (2016). Innovating Pedagogy 2016: Open University Innovation Report 5. The Open University. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.20677.04325

Suputra, P. E. D., Nitiasih, P. K., & Paramarta, I. M. S. (2020). Kelas Daring Bahasa Inggris di Masa Pandemi: Sebuah Tantangan Pembelajaran. Seminar Nasional Riset Inovatif, 7, 110–118.

Tallvid, M. (2016). Understanding teachers’ reluctance to the pedagogical use of ICT in the 1:1 classroom. Education and Information Technologies, 21(3), 503–519. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-014-9335-7

Taopan, L. L., Drajati, N. A., & Sumardi. (2020). Tpack Framework: Challenges and Opportunities in Efl Classrooms. Research and Innovation in Language Learning, 3(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.33603/rill.v3i1.2763

Wardhani, T. Z. Y., & Krisnani, H. (2020). Optimalisasi Peran Pengawasan Orang Tua Dalam Pelaksanaan Sekolah Online Di Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Prosiding Penelitian Dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, 7(1), 48. https://doi.org/10.24198/jppm.v7i1.28256

Wilson, A. (2020). Penerapan Metode Pembelajaran Daring (Online) melalui Aplikasi Berbasis Android saat Pandemi Global. SAP (Susunan Artikel Pendidikan), 5(1). https://doi.org/10.30998/sap.v5i1.6386

Yaman, İ., & Ekmekçi, E. (2016). A Shift from CALL to MALL ? Participatory Educational Research, 4(2), 25–32.

Yaumi, M. (2007). the Implementation of Distance Learning in. Learning, 1996, 196–215.

Yudhiantara, R. A., & Sugilar, H. (2018). Menuju Implementasi Mobile Assisted Laguage Learning ( Mall ): Penggunaan Smart Phone Untuk. Jurnal Prespektif, 02, 68–78.