Main Article Content


This study is a qualitative research by using the descriptive method that aims to examine the behaviour of eighteen students in Bandung, Indonesia. Six issues related to geometry were given to eighteen of second-grade junior high school students with heterogeneous abilities. The problems given to the students contained all of the problem-solving strategies such as guessing and checking, make a picture, make a list, make a table, working backwards, looking patterns, and using a logical reason, solving simple problems and making questions. Data collection was conducted through mathematical problem-solving tests, recording students’ presentations, and interviewing among researchers and students after doing the problems. The result of recording was a video during the presentation process, and the interview would explore their understanding of the given problems to see the behaviour used by subjects of the research. The data in this research showed that many students’ behaviour identified; in the relevant literature, there are terms of the behaviour of problem-solving naive, routine, and sophisticated. However, the category "naïve," "routine," and "sophisticated" did not fully draw various behaviours observed, it was obtained additional category termed behavioural problem solver "naïve," "routine," "semi-sophisticated" and "sophisticated". It was due to the category of regular students can be divided into two, some students can be directed, and some of them cannot be directed to sophisticated behaviour. Thus, the routine category can be classified into two categories: routine and semi-sophisticated.


Behavior Naïve Problem solving Routine Semi-Sophisticated Sophisticated

Article Details


  1. Cai, J. (2003). Singaporean students' mathematical thinking in problem solving and problem posing: an exploratory study. International journal of mathematical education in science and technology, 34(5), 719-737. doi:10.1080/00207390310001595401

  2. [Article]     [Google Scholar]


  4. Chew, M. S. F., Shahrill, M., & Li, H. C. (2019). The integration of a problem-solving framework for Brunei high school mathematics curriculum in increasing student's affective competency. Journal on Mathematics Education, 10(2), 215-228. doi:10.22342/jme.10.2.7265.215-228

  5. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  6. De Hoyos, M., Gray, E., & Simpson, A. (2002). Students assumptions during problem solving. In 2nd International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics, Crete, Greece.

  7. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  8. Ekawati, R., Susanti, S., & Chen, J. C. (2020). Primary students’ mathematical literacy: A case study. Infinity Journal, 9(1), 49-58. doi:10.22460/infinity.v9i1.p49-58

  9. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  10. Elia, I., van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., & Kolovou, A. (2009). Exploring strategy use and strategy flexibility in non-routine problem solving by primary school high achievers in mathematics. ZDM, 41(5), 605-618. doi:10.1007/s11858-009-0184-6

  11. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  12. Fitzpatrick, C. (1994). Adolescent mathematical problem solving: The role of metacognition, strategies and beliefs. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

  13. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  14. Harisman, Y., Kusumah, Y. S., Kusnandi, K., & Noto, M. S. (2019). The teachers’ experience background and their profesionalism. Infinity Journal, 8(2), 129-142. doi:10.22460/infinity.v8i2.p129-142

  15. [Article]     [Google Scholar]


  17. Harisman, Y., Noto, M. S., Bakar, M. T., & Amam, A. (2017). The different patterns of gesture between genders in mathematical problem solving of geometry. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 812(1), 012039. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/812/1/012039

  18. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  19. Harisman, Y., Noto, M. S., & Hidayat, W. (2020). Experience student background and their behavior in problem solving. Infinity Journal, 9(1), 59-68. doi:10.22460/infinity.v9i1.p59-68

  20. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  21. Hendriana, H., & Fadhillah, F. M. (2019). The students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of junior high school through problem-solving approach. Infinity Journal, 8(1), 11-20. doi:10.22460/infinity.v8i1.p11-20

  22. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  23. Hidayat, W. (2017). Adversity quotient dan penalaran kreatif matematis siswa sma dalam pembelajaran argument driven inquiry pada materi turunan fungsi. KALAMATIKA: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 2(1), 15-28. doi:10.22236/KALAMATIKA.vol2no1.2017pp15-28

  24. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  25. Hutajulu, M., Wijaya, T. T., & Hidayat, W. (2019). The effect of mathematical disposition and learning motivation on problem solving: An analysis. Infinity Journal, 8(2), 229-238. doi:10.22460/infinity.v8i2.p229-238

  26. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  27. Kariadinata, R. (2021). Students’ reflective abstraction ability on linear algebra problem solving and relationship with prerequisite knowledge. Infinity Journal, 10(1), 1-16. doi:10.22460/infinity.v10i1.p1-16

  28. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  29. Lester, F., & Kroll, D. (1993). Assessing student growth in mathematical problem solving. In G. Kulm (Ed.). Assessing higher order thinking in mathematics (pp. 53–70). Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  30. [Google Scholar]

  31. Malloy, C. E., & Jones, M. G. (1998). An investigation of African American students' mathematical problem solving. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 29(2), 143-163. doi:10.5951/jresematheduc.29.2.0143

  32. [Article]     [Google Scholar]


  34. Maulidia, F., Johar, R., & Andariah, A. (2019). A case study of students’creativity in solving mathematical problems through problem based learning. Infinity Journal, 8(1), 1-10. doi:10.22460/infinity.v8i1.p1-10

  35. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  36. McLeod, D. B. (1988). Affective issues in mathematical problem solving: Some theoretical considerations. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 19(2), 134-141. doi:10.5951/jresematheduc.19.2.0134

  37. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  38. Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic Indonesia [MECRI]. (2016). Peraturan menteri pendidikan dan kebudayaan republik Indonesia nomor 22 tahun 2016 tentang standar proses pendidikan dasar dan menengah. Jakarta: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia.

  39. [Article]

  40. Muir, T., Beswick, K., & Williamson, J. (2008). “I’m not very good at solving problems”: An exploration of students’ problem solving behaviours. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 27(3), 228-241. doi:10.1016/j.jmathb.2008.04.003

  41. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  42. Olivares, D., Lupiáñez, J. L., & Segovia, I. (2021). Roles and characteristics of problem solving in the mathematics curriculum: a review. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 52(7), 1079-1096. doi:10.1080/0020739X.2020.1738579

  43. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  44. Polya, G. (1957). How to solve it (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

  45. [Google Scholar]


  47. Praekhaow, P., Chindanurak, T., Konglok, S. A., & Sokhuma, K. (2021). Studying conditions and problems for developing mathematics learning model of undergraduate students in Thailand. Infinity Journal, 10(1), 121-132. doi:10.22460/infinity.v10i1.p121-132

  48. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  49. Schoenfeld, A. H. (1982). Measures of problem-solving performance and of problem-solving instruction. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 13(1), 31-49. doi:10.5951/jresematheduc.13.1.0031

  50. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  51. Smith, M. J. (2013). An exploration of metacognition and its effect on mathematical performance in differential equations. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning13(1), 100-111.

  52. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  53. Stacey, K. (2005). The place of problem solving in contemporary mathematics curriculum documents. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 24(3-4), 341-350. doi:10.1016/j.jmathb.2005.09.004

  54. [Article]     [Google Scholar]

  55. Sulak, S. (2010). Effect of problem solving strategies on problem solving achievement in primary school mathematics. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 468-472. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.182

  56. [Article]     [Google Scholar]