Haji Muhamad Hafizuddin Haji Mohamad Ali (1)
Daniel Asamoah (2*) - [ http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5577-5266 ]
Masitah Shahrill (3) - [ http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9395-0798 ]

(1) Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam
(2) Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam
(3) Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam
(*) Corresponding Author


The recent globalisation and the emergency of COVID-19 require a teaching and learning environment that encourages the use of technology. Through a mixed-method design and an action research approach, this study investigated the effectiveness of a flipped classroom model through multimedia technology in improving students’ performance in directed numbers, given the difficulty and misconceptions of students in this mathematical concept. A total of 30 Year 9 students conveniently sampled from one of the secondary schools in Brunei Darussalam served as participants. The action taken involved a pretest, intervention, posttest, and interviews. The results of the paired sample t-test revealed that students’ performance in directed numbers significantly improved after the flipped classroom intervention. Students had positive perceptions of the flipped classroom model as it encouraged their readiness, participation, and motivation. Challenges such as time constraints and distractions when studying from home were reported. These results imply that amid COVID-19, a flipped classroom through multimedia technology can be an effective and alternative way of teaching and learning directed numbers. It has the potential of encouraging student-centred learning and creativity, which are vital in teaching and learning mathematics.


Academic performance; Brunei Darussalam; Directed numbers; Flipped classroom model; Multimedia technology

Full Text:



Abdurasulovich, K. J., Abdurasulovich, K., Yangiboevich, K., Anvarovich, A., & Xolmurodovich, G. (2020). Opportunities and results to increase the effectiveness of multimedia teaching in higher education. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(14), 89-93.

Aprianto, E., Purwati, O., & Anam, S. u. (2020). Multimedia-assisted learning in a flipped classroom: A case study of autonomous learning on EFL university students. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 15(24), 114-127. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i24.14017

Ash, K. (2012). Educators view flipped model with a more critical eye. Education Week, 32(2), S6-S7.

Avison, D. E., Lau, F., Myers, M. D., & Nielsen, P. A. (1999). Action research. Communications of the ACM, 42(1), 94-97. https://doi.org/10.1145/291469.291479

Baker, J. W. (2000). The “Classroom Flip”, Using web course management tools to become the guide by the side. The 11th International Conference on College Teaching and Learning, Jacksonville.

Balu, A. (2020). Contribution of multimedia technology in education. International journal of multidisciplinary educational research, 9(2), 127-131.

Bishop, J., & Verleger, M. A. (2013). The flipped classroom: A survey of the research. In 2013 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition. https://doi.org/10.18260/1-2--22585

Bofferding, L. (2014). Negative Integer Understanding: Characterizing First Graders' Mental Models. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education JRME, 45(2), 194-245. https://doi.org/10.5951/jresematheduc.45.2.0194

Botha-Ravyse, C., & Reitsma, G. (2015). Multi-media for flipped classrooms: Engaged nutrition learning in a multi-media enhanced flipped classroom. Progressio, 37(1), 19-32. https://doi.org/10.25159/0256-8853/570

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2012). Thematic analysis. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long, A. T. Panter, D. Rindskopf, & K. J. Sher (Eds.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol. 2. Research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, neuropsychological, and biological (pp. 57-71). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/13620-004

Busebaia, T. J. A., & John, B. (2020). Can flipped classroom enhance class engagement and academic performance among undergraduate pediatric nursing students? A mixed-methods study. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 15(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41039-020-0124-1

Cevikbas, M., & Kaiser, G. (2020). Flipped classroom as a reform-oriented approach to teaching mathematics. Zdm, 52(7), 1291-1305. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-020-01191-5

Chong, W., Shahrill, M., Asamoah, D., & Latif, S. (2022). Non-digital card game and year 8 students’ performance in integers. Journal of Mathematics and Science Teacher, 2(1), em007. https://doi.org/10.29333/mathsciteacher/11928

Coman, E., Picho, K., McArdle, J., Villagra, V., Dierker, L., & Iordache, E. (2013). The paired t-test as a simple latent change score model [Opinion]. Frontiers in psychology, 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00738

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Dominic-Ugwu, B., & Nonyelum, O. F. (2019). The assessment of multimedia technology in the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools in Abuja-Nigeria. International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science, 11(6), 8-18. https://doi.org/10.5815/ijmecs.2019.06.02

Ferreri, S. P., & O’Connor, S. K. (2013). Redesign of a large lecture course into a small-group learning course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(1), 13. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe77113

Fisher, M. J., & Marshall, A. P. (2009). Understanding descriptive statistics. Australian Critical Care, 22(2), 93-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aucc.2008.11.003

Fuadiah, N. F., & Suryadi, D. (2017). Some Difficulties in Understanding Negative Numbers Faced by Students: A Qualitative Study Applied at Secondary Schools in Indonesia. International Education Studies, 10(1), 24-38. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v10n1p24

Fulton, K. (2012). The flipped classroom: Transforming education at Byron High School: A Minnesota high school with severe budget constraints enlisted YouTube in its successful effort to boost math competency scores. The Journal, 39(3), 18-20.

Hamid, M. H. S., Shahrill, M., Matzin, R., Mahalle, S., & Mundia, L. (2013). Barriers to mathematics achievement in Brunei secondary school students: Insights into the roles of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, proactive coping, and test stress. International Education Studies, 6(11), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v6n11p1

Herreid, C. F., & Schiller, N. A. (2013). Case studies and the flipped classroom. Journal of College Science Teaching, 42(5), 62-66. http://www.jstor.org/stable/43631584

Hew, K. F., & Lo, C. K. (2018). Flipped classroom improves student learning in health professions education: a meta-analysis. BMC Medical Education, 18(1), 38. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1144-z

Jamaludin, R., & Osman, S. Z. M. (2014). The use of a flipped classroom to enhance engagement and promote active learning. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(2), 124-131.

Jamil, H., Ramli, H. M., & Leong, E. (2022). Advocating blended learning for university undergraduate level mathematical instruction beyond COVID-19. In S. A. Abdul Karim & S. A. Husain (Eds.), Engineering and Sciences Teaching and Learning Activities: New Systems Throughout COVID-19 Pandemics (pp. 33-45). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79614-3_4

Japar, I., Asamoah, D., & Shahrill, M. (2021). Addressing student learning gaps in fractions: How effective is synchronous video conferencing? Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 16(1), 103-120. https://doi.org/10.22342/jpm.16.1.17027.103-120

Jenkins, C. (2012). The advantages and disadvantages of the flipped classroom. The Lecture Tools Blog, Posted by Chelsea Jenkins.

Johari, P. M. A. R. P., & Shahrill, M. (2020). The common errors in the learning of the simultaneous equations [Simultaneous equations; Errors; Misconceptions; Secondary Mathematics; Brunei Darussalam]. Infinity Journal, 9(2), 263-274. https://doi.org/10.22460/infinity.v9i2.p263-274

Jovanović, J., Gašević, D., Dawson, S., Pardo, A., & Mirriahi, N. (2017). Learning analytics to unveil learning strategies in a flipped classroom. The Internet and Higher Education, 33, 74-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2017.02.001

Kaleem, F., Jacobson, D. W., & Khan, F. (2016). Comparison of traditional, flipped, and hybrid teaching methods in an electrical engineering circuit analysis course. In 2016 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, New Orleans. https://doi.org/10.18260/p.26540

Lamb, L. L., Pierson Bishop, J., Philipp, R. A., Schappelle, B. P., Whitacre, I., & Lewis, M. (2012). Informing Practice: Developing Symbol Sense for the Minus Sign: research matters for teachers. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 18(1), 5-9. https://doi.org/10.5951/mathteacmiddscho.18.1.0005

Latif, A., Waznah, S., Matzin, R., Jawawi, R., Mahadi, M. A., Jaidin, J. H., Mundia, L., & Shahrill, M. (2017). Implementing the flipped classroom model in the teaching of history. Journal of Education and Learning, 11(4), 374-381. https://doi.org/10.11591/edulearn.v11i4.6390

Latif, S. N. A. (2021). Standardised testing and students’ wellbeing: A global or local problem? In P. Le Ha, A. Kumpoh, K. Wood, R. Jawawi, & H. Said (Eds.), Globalisation, Education, and Reform in Brunei Darussalam (pp. 197-215). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-77119-5_10

Levison, M. (2016). Challenges faced by Z.J.C. pupils in the learning of directed numbers: A case study. Dissertation. Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe. Retrieved from https://elibrary.buse.ac.zw/bitstream/123456789/5535/1/Levison%20eDU..pdf

Lin, P.-C., & Chen, H.-M. (2016). The effects of flipped classroom on learning effectiveness: using learning satisfaction as the mediator. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, 14(2), 231-244.

Makonye, J. P., & Fakude, J. (2016). A study of errors and misconceptions in the learning of addition and subtraction of directed numbers in grade 8. SAGE Open, 6(4), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244016671375

Manjanai, S., & Shahrill, M. (2016). Introducing the flipped classroom strategy in the learning of year nine factorization. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Educational Studies, 11(4), 35-55. https://doi.org/10.18848/2327-011X/CGP/v11i04/35-55

Math Antics. (2014). Math antics – adding and subtracting integers. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_BgblvF90UE

Math Antics. (2014). Math antics – negative numbers. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OAoLCXpao6s

Matzin, R., Shahrill, M., Mahalle, S., Hamid, M. H. S., & Mundia, L. (2013). A comparison of learning styles and study strategies scores of Brunei secondary school students by text anxiety, success attributions, and failure attributions: Implications for teaching at-risk and vulnerable students. Review of European Studies, 5(5), 119-127. https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v5n5p119

Mazur, E. (2009). Farewell, Lecture? Science, 323(5910), 50-51. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1168927

Mertler, C. A. (2013). Classroom-based action research: revisiting the process as customizable and meaningful professional development for educators. Journal of pedagogic development, 3(3), 38-42. http://hdl.handle.net/10547/335968

Moravec, M., Williams, A., Aguilar-Roca, N., & O'Dowd, D. K. (2010). Learn before lecture: A strategy that improves learning outcomes in a large introductory biology class. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 9(4), 473-481. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.10-04-0063

Nawi, N. a., Jawawi, R., Matzin, R., Jaidin, J. H., Shahrill, M., & Mundia, L. (2015). To flip or not to flip: The challenges and benefits of using flipped classroom in geography lessons in Brunei Darussalam. Review of European Studies, 7(12), 133-145. https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v7n12p133

Nielsen, P. L., Bean, N. W., & Larsen, R. A. A. (2018). The impact of a flipped classroom model of learning on a large undergraduate statistics class. Statistics Education Research Journal, 17(1), 121-140. https://doi.org/10.52041/serj.v17i1.179

Oliveira, L. (2018). Flipping the classroom with multimedia resources to regulate learning pace: A case study Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality, Salamanca, Spain. https://doi.org/10.1145/3284179.3284311

Pierce, R., & Fox, J. (2012). vodcasts and active-learning exercises in a “flipped classroom” model of a renal pharmacotherapy module. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(10), 196. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7610196

Qader, R. O., & Yalcin Arslan, F. (2019). The effect of flipped classroom instruction in writing: A case study with Iraqi EFL learners. Teaching English with Technology, 19(1), 36-55. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1204642.pdf

Rajendra, I. M., & Sudana, I. M. (2018). The influence of interactive multimedia technology to enhance achievement students on practice skills in mechanical technology. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 953(1), 012104. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/953/1/012104

Rosli, S., Shahrill, M., & Yusof, J. (2020). Applying the hybrid strategy in solving mathematical word problems at the elementary school level [Mathematics, word problems, hybrid strategy, errors, visual representations]. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 10(2), 216-230. https://doi.org/10.3926/jotse.965

Salam, N. H. A., & Shahrill, M. (2014). Examining classroom interactions in secondary mathematics classrooms in Brunei Darussalam. Asian Social Science, 10(11), 92-103. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v10n11p92

Sarwadi, H. R. H., & Shahrill, M. (2014). Understanding students’ mathematical errors and misconceptions: The case of year 11 repeating students. Mathematics Education Trends and Research, 2014, 1-10.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2016). Research methods for business students (7th ed.). Pearson.

Say, F. S., & Yildirim, F. S. (2020). Flipped classroom implementation in science teaching. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching, 7(2), 606-620.

Shahrill, M. (2018). Teachers’ devotion to review lessons: Insights to the mathematics lessons in Brunei Darussalam. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1028, 012158. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1028/1/012158

Shahrill, M., Noorashid, N., & Keasberry, C. (2021). COVID-19: Educational practices and responses in Brunei Darussalam. In P. Le Ha, A. Kumpoh, K. Wood, R. Jawawi, & H. Said (Eds.), Globalisation, Education, and Reform in Brunei Darussalam (pp. 325-354). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-77119-5_16

Shahrill, M., Petra, M. I., Naing, L., Yacob, J., Santos, J. H., & Abdul Aziz, A. B. Z. (2021). New norms and opportunities from the COVID-19 pandemic crisis in a higher education setting: Perspectives from Universiti Brunei Darussalam. International Journal of Educational Management, 35(3), 700-712. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-07-2020-0347

Sirakaya, D. A., & Ozdemir, S. (2018). The effect of a flipped classroom model on academic achievement, self-directed learning readiness, motivation and retention. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 6(1), 76-91. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1165484.pdf

Stratton, E., Chitiyo, G., Mathende, A. M., & Davis, K. M. (2020). Evaluating flipped versus face-to-face classrooms in middle school on science achievement and student perceptions. Contemporary Educational Technology, 11(1), 131-142. https://doi.org/10.30935/cet.646888

Strelan, P., Osborn, A., & Palmer, E. (2020). The flipped classroom: A meta-analysis of effects on student performance across disciplines and education levels. Educational Research Review, 30, 100314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2020.100314

Toh, T., Tengah, K., Shahrill, M., Tan, A., & Leong, E. (2017). The flipped classroom strategy: The effects of implementation at the elementary school level mathematics lessons. In Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on Education. https://doi.org/10.17501/icedu.2017.3120

Vlassis, J. (2008). The role of mathematical symbols in the development of number conceptualization: The case of the minus sign. Philosophical Psychology, 21(4), 555-570. https://doi.org/10.1080/09515080802285552

Yohannes, H. M. G., Bhatti, A. H., & Hasan, R. (2016). Impact of multimedia in teaching mathematics. International Journal of Mathematics Trends and Technology, 39(1), 80-83. https://doi.org/10.14445/22315373/IJMTT-V39P510

Zakaria, E., Solfitri, T., Daud, Y., & Abidin, Z. Z. (2013). Effect of cooperative learning on secondary school students’ mathematics achievement. Creative Education, 4(2), 98-100. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2013.42014

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22460/infinity.v11i2.p193-210

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 243 times
PDF - 137 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.