Johannis Takaria
Wahyudin Wahyudin
Jozua Sabandar
Jarnawi Afgani Dahlan


The purpose of this study was to find out the relationship between statistical literacy and mathematical representation of students as pre-service elementary school teachers through the Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) model. The relationship between statistical literacy and mathematical representation was analyzed by using a product-moment correlation with a sample of 35 students of Elementary School Teacher Education Study Program at one of the state universities in Ambon City. The results showed that there was a positive and strong relationship between statistical literacy and mathematical representation with a correlation value of 0.66. This relationship means that if students have good mathematical representation abilities, statistical literacy abilities are also getting better. Exploration of statistical literacy and mathematical representation abilities can be facilitated by using The CPS learning model. The CPS learning model can facilitate student learning as a structure in mathematical thinking so that statistical literacy and mathematical representation abilities of students can be explored through the transformation of ideas among students. The CPS learning model aspects were implemented in high and very high categories while the indicators were at rating-2 and rating-3.


Statistical literacy, Mathematical representation, CPS Learning Model

Full Text:



Ainsworth, S. (2006). DeFT: A conceptual framework for considering learning with multiple representations. Learning and instruction, 16(3), 183-198.

Aoyama, K., & Stephen, M. (2003). Graph Interpretation Aspects of Statistical Literacy: A Japanese Perspective. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 15(3), 207-225.

Bal, A. P. (2014). The examination of representations used by classroom teacher candidates in solving mathematical problems. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 14(6). 2349-2365.

Ben-Zvi, D., & Garfield, J. (2004). The challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers (Springer).

Best, J. W., & Khan, J. V. (1995). Research in Education Seventy Edition. Prentice Hall of India.

Bidgood, P., Hunt, N., & Jolliffe, F. (2010). Assessment Methods in Statistical Education. West Sussex: Willey and Sons, Publication.

Callingham, R., & Watson, J. M. (2017). The Development of Statistical Literacy at School. Statistics Education Research Journal, 16(1), 181-201.

Chick, H., & Pierce, R. (2013). The Statistical Literacy Needed to Interpret School Assessment Data. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 15(2), 5-26.

Fatmanissa, N., & Sagara, R. (2017). Language Literacy And Mathematics Competence Effect Toward Word Problems Solving. Infinity Journal, 6(2), 195-206.

Gal, I. (2002). Adults' Statistical Literacy: Meanings, Components, Responsibilities. International Statistical Review, 70(1), 1-25.

Garfield, J. (1995). How students learn statistics. International Statistical Review, 63(1), 25-34.

Garfield, J., & Ahlgren, A. (1988). Diffieculties in Learning Basic Concepts in Probability and Statistics: Implications for Research. Journal for research in mathematics Education, 19(1), 44-63.

Garfield, J., & Ben‐Zvi, D. (2007). How students learn statistics revisited: A current review of research on teaching and learning statistics. International statistical review, 75(3), 372-396.

Hendriana, H., Putra, H. D., & Hidayat, W. (2019). How to Design Teaching Materials to Improve the Ability of Mathematical Reflective Thinking of Senior High School Students in Indonesia?. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 15(12), em1790.

Jonassen, D. H., & Rohrer-Murphy, L. (1999). Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environments. Educational technology research and development, 47(1), 61-79.

Linnusky, I. N., & Wijaya, A. (2017). Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Dengan Pendekatan Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Pada Materi Bangun Ruang Sisi Datar Kelas VIII SMP/MTS. Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika-S1, 6(1), 1-9.

Marriott, J., Davies, N., & Gibson, L. (2009). Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving. Journal of Statistics Education, 17(1), 1-19.

NCTM (2000). Principle and Standards for School Mathematic. Virginia: NCTM

Ngeow, K. Y. H. (1998). Enhancing student thinking through collaborative learning. ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication, Indiana University.

Schield, M. (1999). Statistical literacy: Thinking critically about statistics. Of Significance, 1(1), 15-20.

Smithson, M. J. (2000). Statistics with confidence: An introduction for psychologists. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Takaria, J. (2015). Peningkatan Literasi Statistis, Representasi Matematis, dan Self Concept Mahasiswa Calon Guru Sekolah Dasar melalui Model Collaborative Problem Solving. Bandung: Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.

Takaria, J., & Talakua, M. (2018a). The ability of statistical literacy student teacher candidate in terms of prior-ability on mathematics. Jurnal Kependidikan: Penelitian Inovasi Pembelajaran, 2(2), 395-408.

Takaria, J. & Talakua, M. (2018b). Efektivitas Model Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) Dalam Meningkatkan Kemampuan Representasi Matematis Mahasiswa Calon Guru Sekolah Dasar. Jurnal Pendidikan Sekolah Dasar (JPsd), 4(2), 190-203.

Tishkovskaya, S & Lancaster, A.G. (2010). Teaching Strategies To Promote Statistical Literacy: Review And Implementation. International Association of Statistical Education (IASE).

Van den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W. H., Segers, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2006). Social and cognitive factors driving teamwork in collaborative learning environments: Team learning beliefs and behaviors. Small group research, 37(5), 490-521.

Verhoeven, P. (2006). Statistics education in the Netherlands and Flanders: An outline of introductory courses at Universities and Colleges. ICOTS-7 Conference Proceedings, 60115-2828.

Walker, D. A. (2017). JMASM 48: The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient and Adjustment Indices: The Fisher Approximate Unbiased Estimator and the Olkin-Pratt Adjustment (SPSS). Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 16(2), 540-546.

Watson, J. M. (2003). Statistical literacy at the school level: What should students know and do. The Bulletin of The International Statistical Institute, Berlim, 54, 1-4.

Watson, J. M. (2006). Issues for statistical literacy in the middle school. ICOTS-7 Conference Proceedings. IASE, Salvador (CD-Rom). 1-6.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 125 times
PDF - 24 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.