Thalitha Ariesti Widhia Wardhani (1*)
Deshinta P. A. D. Argaswari (2)

(1) Sampoerna University, Indonesia
(2) Sampoerna University, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


This study aims to identify students’ errors in solving word problems of trigonometry according to the Newman Error Hierarchical Model. This study uses qualitative descriptive data gathered based on fact, and data analysis presented descriptively. The population is students of X IPA 2 at SMAN 1 Cikarang Utara, West Java, Indonesia, and to understand more about the error that happened, the researcher took six students of SMAN 1 Cikarang Utara as a sample. The sample is chosen by purposive sampling. Instrument tests, interviews, and documentation are the data collected. This study used the Newman Error Hierarchical Model to analyze high school students’ errors in solving word problems of trigonometry. The results show that students made errors in comprehension, transformation, process skill, and encoding stage. The errors were caused by their lack of understanding some words and terms in the word problem, lack of ability in transforming the word problem to the mathematical model and strategy, lack of processing the algebra and calculation, lack of motivation, and carelessness.


High School Students; Newman Error; Students’ Error; Trigonometry; Word Problem

Full Text:



Argaswari, D. P. A. D. (2016). Pengembangan modul pembelajaran berdasarkan teori van hiele pada pokok bahasan segiempat untuk meningkatkan level berpikir geometri siswa kelas VII smpn 1 Selogiri. Thesis. UNS (Sebelas Maret University).

Arhin, J., & Hokor, E. (2021). Analysis of High School Students’ Errors in Solving Trigonometry Problems. Journal of Mathematics and Science Teacher, 1(1), em003. https://doi.org/10.29333/mathsciteacher/11076

Arlinwibowo, J., Achyani, I., & Kurniadi, G. (2021). Multidimentional item respose utilization for validating mathematics national examination in Indonesia. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1764(1), 012113. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1764/1/012113

Boonen, A. J. H., de Koning, B. B., Jolles, J., & van der Schoot, M. (2016). Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training [Original Research]. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 191. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00191

Borasi, R. (1987). Exploring Mathematics through the Analysis of Errors. For the learning of Mathematics, 7(3), 2-8. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40247900

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Pearson.

Cuevas, G. J. (2000). The Problem-Solving Process of Research on Word Problems [Word Problems: Research and Curriculum Reform, Stephen K. Reed]. The American Journal of Psychology, 113(2), 322-325. https://doi.org/10.2307/1423735

Demir, Ö., & Heck, A. (2013). A new learning trajectory for trigonometric functions. In Proceedings of the 11th international conference on technology in mathematics teaching.

Dewanto, M. D., Budiyono, B., & Pratiwi, H. (2017). Students’ error analysis in solving the math word problems of high order thinking skills (HOTS) type on trigonometry application. In 1st Annual International Conference on Mathematics, Science, and Education (ICoMSE 2017). https://doi.org/10.2991/icomse-17.2018.34

Erlisa, W., & Prabawanto, S. (2019). Identification of Learning obstacle in trigonometry materials In senior high school. In International Seminar STEMEIF (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Learning International Forum).

Fatmanissa, N., Kusnandi, K., & Usdiyana, D. (2020). Effect of Schema Use in Solving Word Problems: Emphasis on Linguistic Difficulties. Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 1(2), ep20006. https://doi.org/10.30935/conmaths/8495

Fatmanissa, N., & Sagara, R. (2017). Language literacy and mathematics competence effect toward word problems solving [word problem; basic Mathematics competence; language literacy]. Infinity, 6(2), 195-206. https://doi.org/10.22460/infinity.v6i2.p195-206

Franklin, J. (2006). Divine proportions: Rational trigonometry to universal geometry. The Mathematical Intelligencer, 28(3), 73-74. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02986892

Galarza, M. L. O. (2017). The Influence of Multiple Representations on Secondary Students' Understanding of Trigononetric Functions. Dissertation. University of Texas at El Paso.

Gooding, S. (2009). Children's difficulties with mathematical word problems. In Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics. Retrieved from https://bsrlm.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/BSRLM-IP-29-3-06.pdf

Gur, H. (2009). Trigonometry Learning. New Horizons in Education, 57(1), 67-80. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ860819.pdf

Hamzah, N., Maat, S. M., & Ikhsan, Z. (2021). A systematic review on pupils’ misconceptions and errors in trigonometry. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 11(4), 209-218. https://doi.org/10.47750/pegegog.11.04.20

Haryanti, M. D., Herman, T., & Prabawanto, S. (2019). Analysis of students’ error in solving mathematical word problems in geometry. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1157(4), 042084. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1157/4/042084

Hasanah, A. N., & Yulianti, K. (2020). Error analysis in solving prism and pyramid problems. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1521(3), 032035. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1521/3/032035

Hidayat, W., & Aripin, U. (2020). Identifikasi kesalahan jawaban mahasiswa pada mata kuliah trigonometri berdasarkan dimensi pengetahuan Krathwohl [Identification of student answer errors in trigonometry courses based on the Krathwohl knowledge dimensions]. JNPM (Jurnal Nasional Pendidikan Matematika), 4(1), 142-153. https://doi.org/10.33603/jnpm.v4i1.3316

Hidayat, W., & Riyana, E. (2021). Desain lintasan belajar trigonometri materi aturan sinus dengan strategi relating, experiencing, applying, cooperating, transferring (REACT) [Trigonometry learning trajectory design for sine rule material with strategies relating, experiencing, applying, cooperating, transferring (REACT)]. JNPM (Jurnal Nasional Pendidikan Matematika), 5(2), 296-309.

Kelly, R. R., & Mousley, K. (2001). Solving Word Problems: More Than Reading Issues for Deaf Students. American Annals of the Deaf, 146(3), 251-262. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/44393481

Khoshaim, H. B. (2020). Mathematics Teaching Using Word-Problems: Is It a Phobia! International Journal of Instruction, 13(1), 855-868. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2020.13155a

Lai, C.-F. (2012). Error Analysis in Mathematics. Technical Report# 1012. Behavioral Research and Teaching. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED572252.pdf

Lambert, V. A., & Lambert, C. E. (2012). Qualitative descriptive research: An acceptable design. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, 16(4), 255-256.

Mensah, F. S. (2017). Ghanaian senior high school students’ error in learning of trigonometry. International Journal Of Environmental & Science Education, 12(8), 1709-1717.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2018). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. Sage publications.

Nanmumpuni, H. P., & Retnawati, H. (2021). Analysis of Senior High School Student’s Difficulty in Resolving Trigonometry Conceptual Problems. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1776(1), 012012. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1776/1/012012

Newman, M. A. (1977). An Analysis of Sixth-Grade Pupil's Error on Written Mathematical Tasks. Victorian Institute for Educational Research Bulletin, 39, 31-43. Retrieved from https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/20000706650/en/

Rohmah, M., & Sutiarso, S. (2018). Analysis problem solving in mathematical using theory Newman. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(2), 671-681. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmste/80630

Rosidin, U., Herpratiwi, H., Suana, W., & Firdaos, R. (2019). Evaluation of national examination (UN) and national-based school examination (USBN) in Indonesia. European Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 827-937. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.8.3.827

Said, S. N., & Tengah, K. A. (2021). Supporting solving word problems involving ratio through the bar model. Infinity, 10(1), 149-160. https://doi.org/10.22460/infinity.v10i1.p149-160

Sanwidi, A. (2018). Students' representation in solving word problem. Infinity, 7(2), 147-154. https://doi.org/10.22460/infinity.v7i2.p147-154

Sumule, U., Amin, S. M., & Fuad, Y. (2018). Error analysis of Indonesian junior high school student in solving space and shape content PISA problem using Newman procedure. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 947, 012053. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/947/1/012053

Taherdoost, H. (2016). Validity and reliability of the research instrument; how to test the validation of a questionnaire/survey in a Research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management (IJARM), 5(3), 28-36. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3205040

Usman, M. H., & Hussaini, M. M. (2017). Analysis of students’ error in learning of trigonometry among senior secondary school students in Zaria Metropolis, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, 13(2), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.9790/5728-1302040104

Walsh, R., Fitzmaurice, O., & O’Donoghue, J. (2017). What Subject Matter Knowledge do second-level teachers need to know to teach trigonometry? An exploration and case study. Irish Educational Studies, 36(3), 273-306. https://doi.org/10.1080/03323315.2017.1327361

White, A. L. (2010). Numeracy, Literacy and Newman's Error Analysis. Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Southeast Asia, 33(2), 129-148.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22460/infinity.v11i1.p87-102

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 930 times
PDF - 364 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.