Main Article Content


Public schools are not always believed to be able to support the development of an individual's potential comprehensively. Homeschooling, an educational program where students learn from home, is currently an alternative education. This study aims to reveal why parents choose to homeschool their children and describe how a homeschooler parent as a single tutor develops her child’s numeracy literacy skills in living book homeschooling. This research is a holistic single-case study with two subjects: a homeschooler (J) and his mother (UPL) as the tutor. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and document analysis of J’s learning activities. Thematic analysis with Atlas.ti software was employed. Findings reveal that the parents’ main reasons for homeschooling are dissatisfaction with public school instruction and flexibility to comprehensively develop homeschoolers’ skills. In addition, the integration of RME (Realistic Mathematics Education) in the living book homeschooling model is a very powerful support to students’ literacy numeracy development. Practically, there are three main strategies implemented; the use of real contexts and concrete teaching aids, as well as an emphasis on conceptual understanding and high-order thinking skills.


Homeschooling Living book Math literacy Numeracy

Article Details


  1. Afriansyah, E. A., & Arwadi, F. (2021). Learning trajectory of quadrilateral applying realistic mathematics education: Origami-based tasks. Mathematics Teaching Research Journal, 13(4), 42-78.

  2. Ainley, J., Pratt, D., & Hansen, A. (2006). Connecting engagement and focus in pedagogic task design. British Educational Research Journal, 32(1), 23-38.

  3. Amaral, R. B., & Hollebrands, K. (2017). An analysis of context-based similarity tasks in textbooks from Brazil and the United States. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 48(8), 1166-1184.

  4. Aram, D., Meidan, I. C., & Deitcher, D. B. (2016). A Comparison between homeschooled and formally schooled kindergartners: Children's early literacy, mothers’ beliefs, and writing mediation. Reading Psychology, 37(7), 995-1024.

  5. Basham, J. D., Blackorby, J., & Marino, M. T. (2020). Opportunity in crisis: The role of universal design for learning in educational redesign. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 18(1), 71-91.

  6. Benson-O'Connor, C. D., McDaniel, C., & Carr, J. (2019). Bringing math to life: Provide students opportunities to connect their lives to math. Networks: An Online Journal for Teacher Research, 21(2), 3.

  7. Bolstad, O. H. (2023). Lower secondary students’ encounters with mathematical literacy. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 35(1), 237-253.

  8. Bonotto, C. (2010). Realistic mathematical modeling and problem posing. In R. Lesh, P. L. Galbraith, C. R. Haines, & A. Hurford (Eds.), Modeling students' mathematical modeling competencies: ICTMA 13 (pp. 399-408). Springer US.

  9. Boulter, L. T. (2017). A comparison of the academic achievement of home school and public school students. International Journal of Business and Social Research, 7(3), 1-9.

  10. Chen, C.-H., & Chiu, C.-H. (2016). Collaboration scripts for enhancing metacognitive self-regulation and mathematics literacy. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 14(2), 263-280.

  11. Cheng, L. P. (2013). The design of a mathematics problem using real-life context for young children. Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Southeast Asia, 36(1), 23-43.

  12. Collom, E. (2005). The ins and outs of homeschooling: The determinants of parental motivations and student achievement. Education and Urban Society, 37(3), 307-335.

  13. Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2016). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications.

  14. da Ponte, J. P., & Brocardo, J. (2020). Echoes and influences of realistic mathematics education in Portugal. In M. van den Heuvel-Panhuizen (Ed.), International reflections on the Netherlands didactics of mathematics: Visions on and experiences with realistic mathematics education (pp. 209-228). Springer International Publishing.

  15. DeCoito, I., & Richardson, T. (2018). Using technology to enhance science literacy, mathematics literacy, or technology literacy: Focusing on integrated STEM concepts in a digital game. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Information and technology literacy: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications (pp. 1561-1582). IGI Global.

  16. DePoy, E., & Gitlin, L. N. (2016). Mixed method designs. In E. DePoy & L. N. Gitlin (Eds.), Introduction to research (fifth edition) (pp. 173-179). Mosby.

  17. Dewantara, A. H., & Mahmud, B. (2020). Supporting the second graders‘ understanding of multiplication concept using traditional game context. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 9(4), 3332-3335.

  18. Dewantara, A. H., Zulkardi, Z., & Darmawijoyo, D. (2015). Assessing seventh graders' mathematical literacy in solving PISA-like tasks. Journal on Mathematics Education, 6(2), 39-49.

  19. Fontenelle-Tereshchuk, D. (2021). ‘Homeschooling’ and the COVID-19 crisis: The insights of parents on curriculum and remote learning. Interchange, 52(2), 167-191.

  20. Gravemeijer, K., & Doorman, M. (1999). Context problems in realistic mathematics education: A calculus course as an example. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 39(1), 111-129.

  21. Gravemeijer, K., & van Eerde, D. (2009). Design research as a means for building a knowledge base for teachers and teaching in mathematics education. The elementary school journal, 109(5), 510-524.

  22. Gravemeijer, K. P. E. (2001). Fostering a dialectic relation between theory and practice. In J. Anghileri (Ed.), Principles and practice in arithmetic teaching: Innovative approaches for the primary classroom (pp. 147-161). Open University Press.

  23. Jamaludin, K. A., Alias, N., & DeWitt, D. (2015). Research and trends in the studies of homeschooling practices: A review on selected journals. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 14(3), 111-119.

  24. Jolly, J. L., Matthews, M. S., & Nester, J. (2013). Homeschooling the gifted: A parent’s perspective. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(2), 121-134.

  25. Jones, J. P., & Tiller, M. (2017). Using concrete manipulatives in mathematical instruction. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 45(1), 18-23.

  26. Larbi, E., & Mavis, O. (2016). The use of manipulatives in mathematics education. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(36), 53-61.

  27. Laurens, T., Batlolona, F. A., Batlolona, J. R., & Leasa, M. (2017). How does realistic mathematics education (RME) improve students’ mathematics cognitive achievement? Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(2), 569-578.

  28. Letzel, V., Pozas, M., & Schneider, C. (2020). Energetic students, stressed parents, and nervous teachers: A comprehensive exploration of inclusive homeschooling during the COVID-19 crisis. Open Education Studies, 2(1), 159-170.

  29. Mamolo, A. (2018). Perceptions of social issues as contexts for secondary mathematics. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 51, 28-40.

  30. Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2019). Qualitative Data Analysis, A Methods Sourcebook (Fourth). Arizona State University.

  31. Muhtadi, A. (2012). Pendidikan dan pembelajaran di sekolah rumah (Homeschooling) [Education and learning at home schools (Homeschooling)]. Raja Grafindo Persada.

  32. Na'imah, T. (2019). Konsep dan aplikasi homeschooling dalam pendidikan keluarga Islam [Homeschooling concepts and applications in Islamic family education]. Islamadina: Jurnal Pemikiran Islam, 20(2), 177-190.

  33. Neuman, A., & Guterman, O. (2017). Homeschooling is not just about education: Focuses of meaning. Journal of School Choice, 11(1), 148-167.

  34. Neuman, A., & Guterman, O. (2017). Structured and unstructured homeschooling: a proposal for broadening the taxonomy. Cambridge Journal of Education, 47(3), 355-371.

  35. Nuhla, A., Sutarto, J., & Budiartati, E. (2020). Parents' 'perspectives and decisions toward homeschooling for early childhood (a study at charlotte mason Indonesia community). Journal of Primary Education, 9(2), 136-143.

  36. OECD. (2018). PISA 2021 Mathematics Framework (first draft). Stockholm.

  37. OECD. (2019). PISA 2018 Results Combined Executive Summaries. OECD Publishing.

  38. Parczewska, T. (2021). Difficult situations and ways of coping with them in the experiences of parents homeschooling their children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. Education 3-13, 49(7), 889-900.

  39. Pozas, M., Letzel, V., & Schneider, C. (2021). ‘Homeschooling in times of corona’: Exploring Mexican and German primary school students’ and parents’ chances and challenges during homeschooling. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 36(1), 35-50.

  40. Purwaningsih, N., & Fauziah, P. Y. (2020). Homeschooling: An Alternative Education Based on Potential of Children. In.

  41. Ray, B. (2015). African American homeschool parents’ motivations for homeschooling and their black children’s academic achievement. Journal of School Choice, 9(1), 71-96.

  42. Razi, A. (2016). Homeschooling: An alternative education in Indonesia. International Journal of Nusantara Islam, 4(2), 75-84.

  43. Reaburn, R. (2021). The experiences of homeschooling parents with mathematics [Journal Article]. Issues in Educational Research, 31(2), 606-625.

  44. Risdiyanti, I., & Prahmana, R. C. I. (2020). The learning trajectory of number pattern learning using "Barathayudha" war stories and Uno Stacko. Journal on Mathematics Education, 11(1), 157-166.

  45. Sembiring, R. K., Hadi, S., & Dolk, M. (2008). Reforming mathematics learning in Indonesian classrooms through RME. Zdm, 40(6), 927-939.

  46. Simon, M. A. (2022). Contributions of the learning through activity theoretical framework to understanding and using manipulatives in the learning and teaching of mathematical concepts. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 66, 100945.

  47. Solano, A., Ugalde, F., Gómez, J., & Sánchez, L. (2018). An augmented reality application to enhance the children’s engagement in an early development method for mathematics literacy. In T. Ahram & C. Falcão, In Advances in Usability and User Experience, Cham.

  48. Thorell, L. B., Skoglund, C., de la Peña, A. G., Baeyens, D., Fuermaier, A. B. M., Groom, M. J., Mammarella, I. C., van der Oord, S., van den Hoofdakker, B. J., Luman, M., de Miranda, D. M., Siu, A. F. Y., Steinmayr, R., Idrees, I., Soares, L. S., Sörlin, M., Luque, J. L., Moscardino, U. M., Roch, M., . . . Christiansen, H. (2022). Parental experiences of homeschooling during the COVID-19 pandemic: differences between seven European countries and between children with and without mental health conditions. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(4), 649-661.

  49. Trung, N. T., Thao, T. P., & Trung, T. (2019). Realistic mathematics education (RME) and didactical situations in mathematics (DSM) in the context of education reform in Vietnam. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1340(1), 012032.

  50. van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. (2020). National reflections on the Netherlands didactics of mathematics: Teaching and learning in the context of realistic mathematics education. Springer Cham.

  51. van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., & Drijvers, P. (2014). Realistic mathematics education. In S. Lerman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mathematics education (pp. 521-525). Springer Netherlands.

  52. Vos, P. (2020). Task contexts in Dutch mathematics education. In M. Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen (Ed.), National reflections on the Netherlands didactics of mathematics: Teaching and learning in the context of realistic mathematics education (pp. 31-53). Springer International Publishing.

  53. Wibawa, K. A., Payadnya, I., Yasa, I., & Prahmana, R. C. I. (2022). The learning trajectory of entrepreneurship arithmetic content using a traditional market. Mathematics Teaching Research Journal, 14(3), 144-169.

  54. Wichers, M. (2001). Homeschooling: Adventitious or detrimental for proficiency in higher education. Education, 122(1), 145-150.

  55. Widjaja, W. (2013). The use of contextual problems to support mathematical learning. Journal on Mathematics Education, 4(2), 151-159.

  56. Wijaya, A., van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., Doorman, M., & Robitzsch, A. (2014). Difficulties in solving context-based PISA mathematics tasks: An analysis of students' errors. The Mathematics Enthusiast, 11(3), 555-584.

  57. Yilmaz, R. (2020). Prospective mathematics teachers' cognitive competencies on realistic mathematics education. Journal on Mathematics Education, 11(1), 17-44.

  58. Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (applied social research methods). Sage publications Thousand Oaks, CA.